“It is chronic water shortage in the body that causes most of the diseases of the human body”
– F. Batmanghelidj in “Your Body’s Many Cries for Water”
The average U.S. citizen drinks 58 gallons of water per year, which translates to 20 fl. oz. (0.6 liters) per day. The adequate daily intake is estimated at:
- 74 fl. oz. (2.2 liters) per day for women
- 101 fl. oz. (3 liters) per day for men
No wonder most people today struggle with chronic health problems when the majority of people drink 70% less water than they should.
Data Source: The Atlantic
At least the average person is now drinking more water than soda, which wasn’t always the case.
As you probably know, water builds approximately 75% of the human body. Water is present in every tissue, so dehydration affects all systems in the body and decreases their performance.
Symptoms of chronic dehydration can include:
- Decreased physical performance
- Joint-related problems
- Fat gain
- Hormonal imbalances
- Mood swings
- Nervous system issues
- Decreased immune system performance
The following sections explain how water prevents those problems and refer you to more information related to the problems you want to address.
Important: Although drinking water quantity is important, don’t forget that water quality also affects your health. The last section on this page gives you a short introduction to water contaminants and water filtration strategies you can use to purify your water.
Water and Physical Performance
Water has several roles that affect your physical performance. Adequate hydration maintains a high level of physical performance because water:
- increases breathing potential and helps the lungs perform better.
- increases tolerance to elevated core temperature.
- improves the sweating rate to dissipate more heat.
- decreases the rate of glycogen use so that your muscles can perform more high-intensity work.
Losing as little as 3% of water relative to your body weight affects those systems and reduces both aerobic and high-intensity performance capacity. Significant dehydration (5-8% or more) decreases endurance by more than 50% and makes high-intensity work nearly impossible.
Data Source: Sport Nutrition (2nd ed.) An Introduction to Energy Production and Performance
The reductions in physical performance you see in the graph apply only to mild climates. Hot and humid climates reduce physical performance even in well-hydrated athletes, so environmental conditions combined with dehydration decrease physical performance.
The effects of dehydration on physical performance are immediate, but it may take several days to recover from one instance of dehydration. That’s why you want to reach your recommended daily water intake every single day.
If you are physically active, follow the steps in the article “Hydration and Electrolyte Replenishment During Exercise” to calculate your baseline water intake and the required water intake during exercise.
If you lead a sedentary lifestyle, you can also refer to that article and calculate your daily water requirement without adjusting for physical activity.
Water Protects the Joints
Although water builds only 22% of the bones, it helps joints function better by:
- lubricating the joints to prevent damage during movement
- preventing sedimentation that will damage joint health and range of motion
However, increasing water intake is beneficial even for people who already have certain medical conditions:
- Arthritis: In addition to lubricating the joints, increasing water intake can also reduce inflammation that causes severe chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients (Source).
- Gout: If the body can’t flush the excessive uric acid, it will crystallize in the joints and increase the risk for a gout attack. It is estimated that only 5 glasses of water per day can decrease the risk of gout attacks by 40% (Source).
- Other: You can never go wrong with drinking enough water to meet the recommended daily requirements. Your body will be grateful.
Water Speeds Up Weight Loss
If you want to lose weight, your first step should be increasing water intake because chronic dehydration:
- increases insulin levels, so the body will store more fat.
- affects liver functions, so the liver can’t process fat as fast as it should.
- affects kidney functions, so they can’t purify your blood as fast as they should.
When you start drinking enough water:
- your metabolism will speed up.
- insulin levels decrease, which reduces both fat storage and risk for diabetes.
- you will not feel hungry as much as you would when chronically dehydrated because water is an appetite suppressant.
- your toxin elimination system will work better.
Drinking more water can be an excellent first step to achieving your weight loss goals. It won’t happen overnight, but drinking more water is a long-term investment in your health, not just your weight loss goals.
The article “Can Drinking More Water Help You Lose Weight?” explains how much weight you can expect to lose if you increase your water intake. It also recommends additional strategies for promoting weight loss.
Water and Your Hormones
Dehydration causes hormonal imbalances that lead to serious chronic health complications. Serious as in diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular problems.
Although the human body has many hormones, let’s stick to those that are well-known to make things simple:
- Testosterone and cortisol – The testosterone/cortisol ratio changes throughout the day, but dehydration reduces testosterone while increasing cortisol. This leads to so many unwanted outcomes that it’s impossible to list them all here Continue reading here…
- Estrogen – This hormone is listed so that women don’t feel forgotten, but there is not enough research on the relationship between estrogen and hydration to ensure that any statements are valid. An article dedicated to estrogen will be added once appropriate literature is found.
- Insulin – This is a hormone you don’t want to mess up. Dehydration increases insulin resistance, and prolonged states of high plasma insulin and insulin resistance lead to not just diabetes, but also cardiovascular disease and cancer. Continue reading here…
- Melatonin – Dehydration reduces melatonin, but don’t take supplements! One of the side-effects of melatonin supplements is dehydration, which is not good for an already-dehydrated body. Because melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle and mood regulation, decreasing melatonin with dehydration can cause both insomnia and mood swings.
Water and Mood Regulation
Some people control extreme moods by dunking their head in bowls with water and ice. If you’re not a masochist, don’t feel left out – you can improve your mood just by drinking water to stay well-hydrated:
- This study found that women with mild dehydration experience mood degradation. The authors believe that the change in mood is linked to survival. The brain changes the mood to warn you that your physiological functions are deteriorating, just like your chances of survival if you don’t find water soon. Fortunately, you don’t need to scout for water in modern society, so survival has never been easier – just head to the nearest water cooler or tap.
- This study found that men with mild dehydration had higher perceptions of anxiety and psychological tension. Even if it’s just your personal perception, it can make your life difficult. Our minds aren’t objective, so it’s a good idea to give it a positive outlook whenever possible. Apparently, that’s not easy when your body is at risk for dehydration.
The effects of dehydration on degraded mood already occur during rest, and mood during dehydration further deteriorates after moderate physical activity. So don’t leave your house dehydrated.
Start your day right by drinking water on an empty stomach to make sure you rehydrate yourself after a long night of sleep so that your mood is easier to regulate during the day.
Want to find out how dehydrated you are? The easiest way to make an estimate is to use a urine color chart, and you can find one in this article.
Water and Sleep Quality
Short and to-the-point: Chronic dehydration reduces the amounts of essential amino acids your body needs to produce melatonin. Low melatonin leads to insomnia.
Chronic dehydration isn’t the only condition that leads to melatonin deficiency:
- Other lifestyle habits, such as smoking or low protein diets or alcohol consumption, can also lead to low melatonin and insomnia.
- Traumatic events, such as loss or abuse, also affect sleep quality until those issues are resolved, preferably with assistance from a professional counselor.
- Physical and psychological conditions can affect sleep quality.
We can’t blame everything on water shortage, but drinking enough water can help regulate the sleep cycle, even when people suffer from traumatic events or medical conditions, as long as they receive appropriate therapy to address the causes.
Water and the Brain
As you probably know, water builds a lot of your brain tissue, but how do the consequences of dehydration manifest?
- Headache – Without a physical cause, other than water shortage in the body, headaches are more common in dehydrated people than in well-hydrated people.
- Reduced focus – Can’t maintain your attention for prolonged periods of time? Well, if you’ve made it this far into the text, you’re probably one of the few people with good attention spans. Without water, it is difficult to maintain concentration over prolonged periods of time.
- Increased mental fatigue/lethargy – Dehydrated people are usually not in the mood to do anything that requires spending mental energy, probably because they perceive tasks to be more difficult than they actually are (Source).
- Anxiety and mental tension – Dehydration leads to increased amounts of psychological stress you have to deal with. We all have to deal with a certain level of psychological stress, but drinking enough water makes it easier to deal with it – even if it only reduces the perception of stress magnitude.
- Cognitive impairment – This is a general term used to describe any problem related to processing information, storing memories, and so on… This study found that impaired executive functions (e.g., short-term memory, focus, and information delegation to long-term memory) can be attributed to changes in brain structures caused by dehydration.
These are just some immediate effects of mild dehydration. Severe and acute dehydration can lead to delirium, fainting, difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, and various other symptoms.
Don’t worry too much about severe dehydration because it usually occurs when other disease cause rapid water loss. However, you’ll want to stay well-hydrated at all times to reduce risk of severe dehydration and conditions that lead to dehydration because water improves your immune system.
- Water and your immune system
- Expanded water quality section
Improve Drinking Water Quality to Improve Health
Drinking enough water is important, but the quality of your drinking water is also critical for health. To learn how you can improve the quality of your drinking water, read about the different ways to purify water at home and while traveling.